Deciphering Daniel and Parallel in the Gospels of the Abomination of Desolation
Deciphering Daniel and Parallel in the Gospels of the Abomination of Desolation
This study ties to the Revelation study here: http://www.paradoxbrown.com/BookofRevelation.doc
and the timeline here: http://paradoxbrown.com/RevelationTimelineMed.jpg
Studying Daniel, it seems that the Bible teaches the “abomination of desolation” is a prophecy that is to be fulfilled 3 times. Also, it seems the Bible teaches that the “times, time, and half a time” (or 3.5 years, 1260 days, 42 months) is to be fulfilled 3 times or in 3 ways. Additionally, there is one period of 1150 or 2300 days to be fulfilled one time. And there is also a period of 1290 and 1335 days to be fulfilled one time.
The first time the abomination of desolation was fulfilled was with Antiochus IV in 168 BC.
The second time was with the Romans around 70 AD.
The third time will be with the Beast in the future of Revelation.
The 1150 and 2300 days was fulfilled in the time of the Maccabees in 165 BC and 162 BC respectively, in relation to Antiochus IV.
The first time the “times, time, and half a time” was fulfilled was during the 3.5 year siege and destruction of Jerusalem, circa 70 AD. The next two fulfillments of “times, time, and half a time” are recorded in Revelation. They are:
1. the authority given to the Beast for 42 months, which is also the same 1260 days the two witnesses preach. This 3.5 year period seems to also be first half of the 70th week of Daniel.
2. The second half of that week seems to be 3.5 literal days in which the two witnesses are dead in the streets. (This relates to “those days will be shortened” in Matt 24 and Mark 13.)
The 1290 and 1335 days also are to be fulfilled in the future time of the book Revelation.
The First Fulfillment
The first time period of fulfillment is in the past, of Dan 11 (which in total covers from about 435 BC-4 BC). The first time the abomination of desolation was fulfilled was around 168 BC.
“And arms shall stand on his part, and they shall pollute the sanctuary of strength, and shall take away the daily [sacrifice], and they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate.” Dan 11:31
This refers to Antiochus IV, with a pig sacrificed on the altar. The rest of Dan 11 after this seems to have been fulfilled between Mark Antony, Octavius, and by Herod the Great.
See Brian Huie’s study here: http://www.herealittletherealittle.net/index.cfm?page_name=Daniel11 (This is essential reading, as a complete or near-complete fulfillment of Daniel 11 in the past would indicate that little to none of it is of primary importance of fulfillment in the end times.)
And the same event, of the abomination placed by Antiochus IV, which fulfilled Dan 11:31, was also a fulfillment of Daniel 8.http://www.enduringword.com/commentaries/2708.htm
A confirmation that Dan 11:31 and Dan 8 are both referring to Antiochus can be found in that Dan 11:4 reads,
“And when he has arisen, his kingdom shall be broken up and divided toward the four winds of heaven, but not among his posterity nor according to his dominion with which he ruled; for his kingdom shall be uprooted, even for others besides these.”
And Dan 8:8 reads, “Therefore the he goat waxed very great: and when he was strong, the great horn was broken; and for it came up four notable ones toward the four winds of heaven.”
And so these passages are telling of the same events, the 4 being the 4 generals (Cassander, Lysimachus, Seleuchus, and Ptolemy) who inherited the empire of Alexander the Great after his death. And some time after this came Antiochus IV.
“And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant [land]. And it waxed great, [even] to the host of heaven; and it cast down [some] of the host and of the stars to the ground, and stamped upon them. Yea, he magnified [himself] even to the prince of the host, and by him the daily [sacrifice] was taken away, and the place of his sanctuary was cast down.
And an host was given [him] against the daily [sacrifice] by reason of transgression, and it cast down the truth to the ground; and it practised, and prospered. Then I heard one saint speaking, and another saint said unto that certain [saint] which spake, How long [shall be] the vision [concerning] the daily [sacrifice], and the transgression of desolation, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trodden under foot? And he said unto me, Unto two thousand and three hundred evenings and mornings; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed…
And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors are come to the full, a king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand up. And his power shall be mighty, but not by his own power: and he shall destroy wonderfully, and shall prosper, and practise, and shall destroy the mighty and the holy people. And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand; and he shall magnify [himself] in his heart, and by peace shall destroy many: he shall also stand up against the Prince of princes; but he shall be broken without hand. And the vision of the evening and the morning which was told [is] true: wherefore shut thou up the vision; for it [shall be] for many days.” Dan 8:9-14, 24-26
This “2300 evenings and mornings” is not a fulfilling of 3.5 years, as that would Biblically be 1260 days. It is a period of either 2300 days (1150 evenings plus 1150 mornings, separated), or of 1150 days (2300 / evenings + mornings).
The abomination was set up in 168 BC.
“Antiochus IV’s army desecrated the Temple and stopped the daily sacrifices. On the 15th of Kislev, in December 168 BCE, the Syrians built a pagan altar over the altar of burnt offering in the Temple and placed an image of Zeus Olympius upon it. Ten days later, on the 25th of Kislev, swine’s flesh was offered on the altar to Zeus.”
http://www.rondaniel.com/library/27-Daniel/Daniel0801.html (essential reading)
“Now the fifteenth day of the month Casleu, in the hundred forty and fifth year, they set up the abomination of desolation upon the altar, and builded idol altars throughout the cities of Juda on every side… Now the five and twentieth day of the month they did sacrifice upon the idol altar, which was upon the altar of God.” Macc 1:54,59
In Dan 8, 2300 days or 1150 days are mentioned. Soon after the abomination was set up, the Maccabees’ violent revolt against Antiochus began. This is mentioned as starting not long after the abomination was placed, and is detailed in Maccabees Chapter 2.In brief, this revolt is what directly led to the rededication of the temple and altar by the Maccabees on the 25th of Kislev 165 BC, 3 years after the abomination was set on the altar, on the 25th of Kislev 168 BC. This story is detailed in Maccabees 4. http://www.jacsweb.org/spirituality-chanukah.html
1150 days would fit the time period from when the abomination was placed, to when the temple and sanctuary was cleansed. The Jewish calendar is an irregular confusing piece of work, http://www.jewfaq.org/calendar.htm. But taking into account leap years in which an extra month is added, 1150 days passing in these 3 years seems to work rather well. And so this was the fulfillment of the 1150 days until the sanctuary was cleansed.
It is interesting to note that the possible interpretation of 2300 days also seems to have a significant fulfillment. Sometime in 164 BC Antiochus IV died, and others rulers took over, like Lysias. And it was actually about 2300 days, or a little over 6 years after the abomination was placed by Antiochus, in which the Battle of Beth-Zechariah took place. This battle against Lysias was notable because, “Before he left, he agreed to a compromise allowing the Jews to follow their customs and to worship as they pleased.”http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Beth_Zechariah
And so this peace agreement was made in 162 BC, a little over 6 years after the abomination of desolation had been set up by Antiochus IV, which Maccabees also records:
“Now therefore let us be friends with these men, and make peace with them, and with all their nation; And covenant with them, that they shall live after their laws, as they did before: for they are therefore displeased, and have done all these things, because we abolished their laws. So the king and the princes were content: wherefore he sent unto them to make peace; and they accepted thereof. Also the king and the princes made an oath unto them: whereupon they went out of the strong hold.” 1 Macc 6:58-61
And so what Antiochus IV had started was finally completely finished about 2300 days later, as Lysias made peace to allow the Jews to follow their laws, and worship as they did before. The Maccabees’ Revolt is also what is mentioned in Dan 11,
“And such as do wickedly against the covenant shall he corrupt by flatteries: but the people that do know their God shall be strong, and do [exploits]. And they that understand among the people shall instruct many: yet they shall fall by the sword, and by flame, by captivity, and by spoil, [many] days. And [some] of them of understanding shall fall, to try them, and to purge, and to make [them] white, [even] to the time of the end: because [it is] yet for a time appointed.” Dan 11:33-35
This verse about being tried and purged refers to the period from the Maccabees onward to the time of Jesus, in which the Jews remained under foreign rule, or troubled with military oppression for most of that time. (The “time appointed” here may also refer the 70th week.)
The rest of Daniel 11 refers to Herod the Great, and also Mark Antony and Octavius, as notable figures over this time period, leading up to the time of Jesus. (See link below) Daniel 11 ends with Dan 11:45, which matches the known history of Herod,
“And he shall plant the tents of his palace between the seas and the glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come to his end, and no one will help him.” Dan 11:45
Of Herod, “But as his illness worsened in March, 4 BCE, he retired to his winter palace at Jericho, less than 10 miles northwest of the Dead Sea, about 45 miles east of the Mediterranean Sea, and less than 20 miles northeast of Jerusalem.”
– Brian Huie, http://www.herealittletherealittle.net/index.cfm?page_name=Daniel11
And so the first fulfillment of the abomination of desolation was in 168 BC, and the fulfillment of the 1150 and 2300 days was in 165 BC and 162 BC, respectively.
The Second Fulfillment
The next event that occurred is the fulfillment of the 69 weeks of Daniel, with the coming of the Messiah, Jesus Christ.
“Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times. And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off [crucified], but not for himself…” Dan 9:25-26
The last event in Dan 11 was Herod dying, which was slightly before Jesus was crucified. And so in chronological order, Daniel 12 picks up shortly after Dan 11 left off, and also shortly after Dan 9:26 leaves off.
“At that time Michael shall stand up, The great prince who stands watch over the sons of your people” – Dan 12:1
The first thing that happens is Michael stands up. This same event is detailed much more in Rev 12:1-12. It describes the war in heaven among the angels that took place after Jesus Christ ascended, after the resurrection (30s AD). When Michael “stood up” it means that he went up to heaven as the leader of God’s army of angels, battling against Satan, and standing up for God’s people.
“1 Now a great sign appeared in heaven: a woman clothed with the sun, with the moon under her feet, and on her head a garland of twelve stars. 2 Then being with child, she cried out in labor and in pain to give birth. 3 And another sign appeared in heaven: behold, a great, fiery red dragon having seven heads and ten horns, and seven diadems on his heads. 4 His tail drew a third of the stars of heaven and threw them to the earth. And the dragon stood before the woman who was ready to give birth, to devour her Child as soon as it was born. 5 She bore a male Child who was to rule all nations with a rod of iron. And her Child was caught up to God and His throne. 6 Then the woman fled into the wilderness, where she has a place prepared by God, that they should feed her there one thousand two hundred and sixty days.
(7 And war broke out in heaven: Michael and his angels fought with the dragon; and the dragon and his angels fought, 8 but they did not prevail, nor was a place found for them[a] in heaven any longer. 9 So the great dragon was cast out, that serpent of old, called the Devil and Satan, who deceives the whole world; he was cast to the earth, and his angels were cast out with him. 10 Then I heard a loud voice saying in heaven, “Now salvation, and strength, and the kingdom of our God, and the power of His Christ have come, for the accuser of our brethren, who accused them before our God day and night, has been cast down. 11 And they overcame him by the blood of the Lamb and by the word of their testimony, and they did not love their lives to the death. 12 Therefore rejoice, O heavens, and you who dwell in them! Woe to the inhabitants of the earth and the sea! For the devil has come down to you, having great wrath, because he knows that he has a short time…)” – Rev 12
We can know this passage is historical, as the male child who was born who would rule all nations with a rod of iron is Jesus Christ (Rev 19:15), and him being caught up to God and His throne is the ascension of Jesus Christ that occurred after the resurrection. Rev 12:1-6 is a summary, and Rev 12:7-17 gives more detail of the events contained between verses 5 and 6, thus the parenthesis above.
Next in order, still in parenthetical of the events between verses 5 and 6, Rev 12:13-16 took place. In it Satan attacks “the woman”. And in this passage is the first fulfillment of the 3.5 year time period. In Rev 12, the “times, time, and half a time” in verse 14 is the same period as the “1260 days” mentioned summarily in verse 6 prior.
“(…13 Now when the dragon saw that he had been cast to the earth, he persecuted the woman who gave birth to the male Child. 14 But the woman was given two wings of a great eagle, that she might fly into the wilderness to her place, where she is nourished for a time and times and half a time, from the presence of the serpent. 15 So the serpent spewed water out of his mouthlike a flood after the woman, that he might cause her to be carried away by the flood. 16 But the earth helped the woman, and the earth opened its mouth and swallowed up the flood which the dragon had spewed out of his mouth.)” -Rev 12
This “woman” is referring to the Messianic Jews, the original Christian church, who were in Jerusalem, who fled and did escape the siege of 70 AD. Much historical information detailing this is found in the article here: http://www.preteristarchive.com/StudyArchive/p/pella-flight.html (essential reading)
The Christians started leaving Jerusalem as early as 66-67 AD. In 66 AD general Cestius Gallus brought a Roman legion to Jerusalem to try to subdue the Jewish revolt which had begun. His legion carried with them the standard or aquila of Roman Legions, which is a small eagle statue usually carried high on a stick. It is recorded that Cestius quit his attack on Jerusalem, though it had been succeeding, and left. (http://www.josephus.org/warChronology2.htm) During the retreat of his legion their eagle aquila was captured by Jewish forces in Israel, which was a disgrace for the legion. (See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Jewish-Roman_War, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legio_XII_Fulminata, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aquila_(Roman))
It was around this time, with the appearance of the Roman legion with their eagle Aquila, that the Christians left Jerusalem. Seeing the army, whose standard was the eagle, the Christian church in Jerusalem knew it was time to flee, and went to Pella, where they were safe during the eventual siege on Jerusalem that occurred a couple years later in 70AD.
Jesus gave warning about this in Luke 21:20-22,
“And when ye shall see Jerusalem compassed with armies, then know that the desolation thereof is nigh. Then let them which are in Judaea flee to the mountains; and let them which are in the midst of it depart out; and let not them that are in the countries enter thereinto. For these be the days of vengeance, that all things which are written may be fulfilled.”
A different general, Vespasian, was sent back with more legions in 67 AD and was joined by his son Titus, who began conquering the area and eventually destroyed Jerusalem in 70 AD. This time period generally fits with 3.5 years or 1260 days. Because the Christians had formerly fled out of Jerusalem, largely to Pella, “the woman” was kept safe in the wilderness from the dragon. The dragon, Satan, was set to attack the Christian church at Jerusalem, but with the leaving of Cestius, they had time to leave, before Jerusalem came under attack again.
These events of Revelation 12 are the same events that are referred to in Daniel 9. Let’s look at it again in full in how it can read in its 1st fulfillment. Note the similar terms in both the passages of Rev 12 and Dan 9 of a “flood” and also “wings of abomination” and “eagle”:
“Know therefore and understand, [that] from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince [shall be] seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times. And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of the prince that shall come [Satan, “prince of this world”] shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof [shall be] with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined. (And he [Jesus Messiah] shall confirm the covenant with many for one week [Passover week]: and in the midst of the week [Jesus crucified] he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease [no more other sacrifices needed, the veil was torn], and on thewings of abominations [eagle standard of Roman Legion] shall be one [Titus] who makes desolate, even until the consummation, which is determined, is poured [like water/flood] out on the desolate.)” -Dan 9
The second fulfillment of the abomination of desolation was fulfilled in 70 AD, after the Romans had conquered the city, with the Romans bringing in their ensigns or standards into the Jewish temple, and sacrificing to them, as Josephus records.
“And now the Romans, upon the flight of the seditious into the city, and upon the burning of the holy house itself, and of all the buildings lying round about it, brought their ensigns to the temple and set them over against its eastern gate; and there did they offer sacrifices to them, and there did they make Titus Imperator, with the greatest acclamations of joy.”
– Josephus Wars 6:6:1 (also see http://www.livius.org/ja-jn/jewish_wars/jwar04.html)
The Roman ensign here refers to the Roman standard or Aquila of an eagle. And so the eagle Aquila Roman standard was both the sign that the Christians should flee, and also served as the abomination of desolation, an eagle idol that was worshipped in the temple and sacrificed to.
Going back to Daniel 12:2, this time of the trouble and siege of 70AD is mentioned,
“And there shall be a time of trouble, Such as never was since there was a nation, even to that time. And at that time your people shall be delivered, every one who is found written in the book. 2 And many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, some to shame and everlasting contempt. 3 Those who are wise shall shine Like the brightness of the firmament, and those who turn many to righteousness like the stars forever and ever.” Dan 12:2-3
The 3.5 year siege and destruction in 70 AD of Jerusalem was a terrible time for Israel, such as had not been before then, up to that time. The Christians left the city and escaped – these were Daniel’s “people who would be delivered”, whose names were written in the book of life – the Christian-Jewish converts were the ones who knew to flee Jerusalem, as Jesus had warned them to do. And they did flee, as is recorded in Rev 12 and historically.
Then a true statement is made about the future, that some will go to everlasting life and some to contempt. Speaking of these Christian converts in the future, they will shine like stars, lead many to righteousness. In other words, the big Choice that faced Jews after the ministry of Jesus is highlighted, and the 2 possible outcomes of that choice. This time after Jesus’ ministry of the early church was when the Gospel was being preached to many Jews, including information about the resurrection. Jesus having predicted the destruction of the Temple almost 40 years prior may have helped some Jews to become Christian at this time.
The next verses in Daniel 12 read,
“4 “But you, Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book until the time of the end; many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall increase.” 5 Then I, Daniel, looked; and there stood two others, one on this riverbank and the other on that riverbank. 6 And one said to the man clothed in linen, who was above the waters of the river, “How long shall the fulfillment of these wonders be?” 7 Then I heard the man clothed in linen, who was above the waters of the river, when he held up his right hand and his left hand to heaven, and swore by Him who lives forever, that it shall be for a time, times, and half a time; and when the power of the holy people has been completely shattered, all these things shall be finished.” Dan 12:4-7
Daniel asks when the end of these wonders will be, and the answer is 3.5 years. The first fulfillment of the “times, time, and half a time” or 3.5 years in Dan 12, refers to the Roman siege and destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD, and this is confirmed as the 1260 days the woman is kept safe in Rev 12. But because the angel here mentions the “time of the end”, this indicates that there will be (at least) a second fulfillment of “times, time, and half a time”.
After the events around 70 AD, in which Satan failed to destroy the Christian church that was in Jerusalem, the next event chronologically is in the end of Rev 12.
“17 And the dragon was enraged with the woman, and he went to make war with the rest of her offspring, who keep the commandments of God and have the testimony of Jesus Christ.”
At the end of Rev 12, Satan goes to make war against Christians, and this war spans a time period from 70AD up to the present day, almost 2000 years of history is covered in Rev 12:17. This chapter is detailing the history and prophecy of what is going on with the angels, behind the scenes to some extent, and as such it quite appropriately leads into the events of Rev 13, which is also about an angel, the Beast, who comes out of the prison of the Abyss/ bottomless pit/Tartaros. This is the next big change, big event, when it comes to the fallen angels.
And so 70 AD was the second time the abomination of desolation was fulfilled, with the Romans sacrificing to the eagle Aquila in the temple, and the first time the 3.5 year period was fulfilled, with the siege on Jerusalem.
The Third Fulfillment
There is one fulfillment of the abomination of desolation, and two “times, time, and half a time” periods left to be fulfilled in the future. The first future “times, time, and half a time” period from Daniel 12, is the 3.5 years in which the Beast is given authority in Dan 7.
“Then I wished to know the truth about the fourth beast, which was different from all the others, exceedingly dreadful, with its teeth of iron and its nails of bronze, which devoured, broke in pieces, and trampled the residue with its feet; 20 and the ten horns that were on its head, and the other horn which came up, before which three fell, namely, that horn which had eyes and a mouth which spoke pompous words, whose appearance was greater than his fellows. 21 “I was watching; and the same horn was making war against the saints, and prevailing against them, 22 until the Ancient of Days came, and a judgment was made in favor of the saints of the Most High, and the time came for the saints to possess the kingdom.
23 “Thus he said: ‘ The fourth beast shall be A fourth kingdom on earth, Which shall be different from all other kingdoms, And shall devour the whole earth, Trample it and break it in pieces. 24 The ten horns are ten kings Who shall arise from this kingdom. And another shall rise after them; He shall be different from the first ones, And shall subdue three kings. 25 He shall speak pompous words against the Most High, Shall persecute[d] the saints of the Most High, And shall intend to change times and law. Then the saints shall be given into his hand For a time and times and half a time. 26 ‘ But the court shall be seated, And they shall take away his dominion, To consume and destroy it forever. 27 Then the kingdom and dominion, And the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven, Shall be given to the people, the saints of the Most High. His kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, And all dominions shall serve and obey Him.” Dan 7
This matches Rev 13 very well,
“1 Then I[a] stood on the sand of the sea. And I saw a beast rising up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns,[b] and on his horns ten crowns, and on his heads a blasphemous name. 2 Now the beast which I saw was like a leopard, his feet were like the feet of a bear, and his mouth like the mouth of a lion. The dragon gave him his power, his throne, and great authority. 3 And I saw one of his heads as if it had been mortally wounded, and his deadly wound was healed. And all the world marveled and followed the beast. 4 So they worshiped the dragon who gave authority to the beast; and they worshiped the beast, saying, “Who is like the beast? Who is able to make war with him?”
5 And he was given a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies, and he was given authority to continue[c] for forty-two months. 6Then he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme His name, His tabernacle, and those who dwell in heaven. 7 It was granted to him to make war with the saints and to overcome them. And authority was given him over every tribe,[d] tongue, and nation.8 All who dwell on the earth will worship him, whose names have not been written in the Book of Life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world. 9 If anyone has an ear, let him hear. 10 He who leads into captivity shall go into captivity; he who kills with the sword must be killed with the sword. Here is the patience and the faith of the saints.” Rev 13
This first future “times, time and half a time” fulfillment from scripture is the same as the first “half a week” of the 70th week of Daniel 9 (which will be fulfilled a second time in the future, besides how it was fulfilled around 70 AD, see prior Dan 9 explanation). Daniel 7 and Revelation 13 are both referring to the same time period of the first half of the 70th week of Daniel 9.
“And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the middle of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make [it] desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate.” Dan 9:27
This same period of “times, time, and half a time” is also specified in Rev 11 as the “42 months” of the Beast’s authority, and pertains very much to what is going on with the Jews in Jerusalem.
“But leave out the court which is outside the temple, and do not measure it, for it has been given to the Gentiles. And they will tread the holy city underfoot for forty-two months. 3 And I will give power to my two witnesses, and they will prophesy one thousand two hundred and sixty days, clothed in sackcloth.” 4 These are the two olive trees and the two lampstands standing before the God[b] of the earth. 5 And if anyone wants to harm them, fire proceeds from their mouth and devours their enemies. And if anyone wants to harm them, he must be killed in this manner. 6 These have power to shut heaven, so that no rain falls in the days of their prophecy; and they have power over waters to turn them to blood, and to strike the earth with all plagues, as often as they desire7 When they finish their testimony, the beast that ascends out of the bottomless pit will make war against them, overcome them, and kill them. 8 And their dead bodies will lie in the street of the great city which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt, where also our[c]Lord was crucified. 9 Then those from the peoples, tribes, tongues, and nations will see their dead bodies three-and-a-half days, and not allow[d] their dead bodies to be put into graves. 10 And those who dwell on the earth will rejoice over them, make merry, and send gifts to one another, because these two prophets tormented those who dwell on the earth.11 Now after the three-and-a-half days the breath of life from God entered them, and they stood on their feet, and great fear fell on those who saw them.” – Rev 11
The Beast is referred to as having authority for 42 months in Rev 13, which matches the 42 months the Holy City is tread underfoot in Rev 11. This seems to be the same period of time in which the 2 witnesses will prophecy for 1260 days. This indicates the 2 witnesses are prophesying while the Beast is in authority and treading the holy city underfoot, all during the same 42 month/1260 day time period.
It would be completely redundant for Rev 11 to mention 42 months in verse 2 and 1260 days in verse 3 if in fact both were referencing to the same time period focused on the 2 witnesses.
Verses 4-6 specify that the 2 witnesses will be in conflict. “Ascends” in verse 7 is a verb in a participle form and is likely meant more as an adjective, to be read “ascending out of the pit” or “ascended out of the pit”, meant to specify which Beast is being spoken of, not the timing of his ascent. (Especially as the 5th Trumpet specifies the timing of his ascent, Rev 11 cannot be specifying the Beast ascends at this time during the 6th Trumpet – as he already ascended past tense at this point.) As such the 42 months of the Beast and 1260 days of the two witnesses running parallel seems to be the point of the use of both numbers in verses 2-3, making this use to not be redundant.
And so Daniel 7, Revelation 11 and 13, and the second fulfillment (first future fulfillment) of Daniel 12 “times, time, and half a time”, all refer to the first half of the 70th week of Daniel 9. And this is the same time in which both the Beast is in authority and the 2 witnesses are prophesying as the outer court is trampled underfoot by the gentiles, and so also the Beast.
The third “times, time, and half a time” fulfillment (second future fulfillment) is with the second half of the 70th week of Daniel. The second half of the 70th week of Daniel is the 3.5 actual days in which the 2 witnesses lie dead in the streets, while the first half of the week is definitely the 3.5 years/ 1260 days that they prophesy.
As the 42 months and 1260 days run co-currently, the only other “times, time, and half a time” period found specified in Revelation is the 3.5 days the 2 witnesses lie dead. If the prophesying of the 2 witnesses for 1260 days is tied to the 70th week at all, then the days they lie dead must also factor into the 70th week. Besides these points, the scene portrayed in Rev 10 clearly references back to the scene in Dan 12 of the angel, standing by the water and the land, who swears by Him in heaven, that it will be for “times, time, and half a time”.
“Then I Daniel looked, and, behold, there stood other two, the one on this side of the bank of the river, and the other on that side of the bank of the river. And [one] said to the man clothed in linen, which [was] upon the waters of the river, How long [shall it be to] the end of these wonders? And I heard the man clothed in linen, which [was] upon the waters of the river, when he held up his right hand and his left hand unto heaven, and sware by him that liveth for ever that [it shall be] for a time, times, and an half; and when he shall have accomplished to scatter the power of the holy people, all these [things] shall be finished.” Dan 12:5-7
“And the angel which I saw stand upon the sea and upon the earth lifted up his hand to heaven, And sware by him that liveth for ever and ever, who created heaven, and the things that therein are, and the earth, and the things that therein are, and the sea, and the things which are therein, that there should be delay no longer: But in the days of the voice of the seventh angel, when he shall begin to sound, the mystery of God should be finished, as he hath declared to his servants the prophets.” Rev 10:5-7
And this Rev 10 reference back to Dan 12 is soon followed, also in the 6th Trumpet section, by the co-current 42 month/1260 day period, and the 3.5 day period. The angel swore by God that it would be for “times, time, and half a time”. This 3.5 number is half of a week, and half of the 70th week here. The first half of the 70th week is 3.5 years, and the second half is 3.5 days.
Jesus also specified in Matt 24 and Mark 13 that “those days would be shortened”, and if this is not the shortening of those days, then what is? Surely, to be shortened, something must have first have been longer. It is well understood that each week in Daniel 9 is “supposed” to represent 7 years, and this is what is anticipated. But if the second half of the “week” is shortened to 3.5 days, this would better prophetically explain why these 7 year periods were called “weeks” in the first place. If God knew in the end He would shorten the 3.5 years of the 70th 7-year period to only 3.5 days, it explains why He called these “weeks” in the first place.
The last abomination that makes desolation is mentioned in Dan 9, which seems to start after the middle of the 70th week. This is the 3rd fulfillment of the abomination of desolation. It is after the middle of this week that the abomination of desolation starts, and according to Revelation, the middle of the week would seem to coincide with the 2 witnesses being killed. Let’s go through Dan 9:25-27 in full, again.
“Know therefore and understand, [that] from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince [shall be] seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times. [from the command to rebuild to time of Jesus] And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: [Jesus Christ crucified, then skip thousands of years]
and the people of the prince that shall come [the Beast and his armies] shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof [shall be] with a flood [Rev 14:20 winepress of wrath of God, blood to horses bridle 200 miles], and unto the end of the war desolations are determined.
(And he [the Beast] shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the middle of the week [death of 2 witnesses] he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation [of the 2 witnesses] to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations [of the Beast in the temple], he shall make [it] desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured [in Revelation bowls of wrath of God poured out] upon the desolate.)” Dan 9:25-27
And so the prophecy of Daniel 9 is fulfilled a second time in full. The last abomination of desolation seems to be fulfilled in Rev 13, in the Beast being in the temple, himself worshipped as “god”, and also the Beast’s image being worshipped.
“5 And he was given a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies, and he was given authority to continue[c] for forty-two months. 6Then he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme His name, His tabernacle, and those who dwell in heaven. 7 And they worshipped the dragon which gave power unto the beast: and they worshipped the beast, saying, Who [is] like unto the beast? who is able to make war with him?… And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world… And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth; and he had two horns like a lamb, and he spake as a dragon. And he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him, and causeth the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed. And deceiveth them that dwell on the earth by [the means of] those miracles which he had power to do in the sight of the beast; saying to them that dwell on the earth, that they should make an image to the beast, which had the wound by a sword, and did live. And he had power to give life unto the image of the beast, that the image of the beast should both speak, and cause that as many as would not worship the image of the beast should be killed.” Rev 13:4-8,12-15
The temple as the location isn’t mentioned above, but this becomes clear looking at 2nd Thessalonians.
“Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition; Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshiped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God.” 2Th 2:3-4
The Beast will be in the temple, and he himself will be the abomination that causes desolation (though the Beast’s image, if in the temple, may also be part of the abomination). Apparently after the 2 witnesses are killed in the middle of the week, the Beast, who himself is the abomination of desolation, enters into the temple and is worshipped, for the 3.5 days that are the second half of the 70th week of Daniel. After the end of the 3.5 days, and the abomination of desolation event, the end of the 70th week, Daniel 9 indicates there will be “pouring” out (matching the bowls of wrath in Revelation) and desolation.
And so the “times, time, and half a time” period of Daniel 12 is fulfilled twice in Revelation. First by the Beast in Dan 7, Rev 13 and Rev 11, during the 42 months (which is also the 1260 days of the 2 witnesses). This is the first half of the 70th week of Daniel 9. The second half of the 70th week of Daniel 9 is literally 3.5 days in which the two witnesses in Rev 11 lay dead. These are the second and third fulfillments of the “times, time, and half a time” periods, the first is 3.5 years and the second is 3.5 days. And the third fulfillment of the abomination of desolation in Dan 9 (also in Matt 24 and Mark 13) corresponds to the Beast himself being worshipped in the temple as “god”, as is described in Rev 13 and 2 Thes 2.
And so this seems to cover all 3 of the instances of the “times, time, and half a time” periods, as well as the one 1150/2300 day time period, and all the times the abomination of desolation is mentioned in the Bible (as far as I know).
This leaves the 1290 day and 1335 day periods. To determine where these days fit into a timeline, Dan 12 indicates that the “abomination of desolation” is an event marker.
“And from the time [that] the daily [sacrifice] shall be taken away, and the abomination that maketh desolate set up, [there shall be] a thousand two hundred and ninety days. Blessed [is] he that waiteth, and cometh to the thousand three hundred and five and thirty days.” – Dan 12:11-12
If the 3.5 days the two witnesses lie dead is the second half of the 70th week of Daniel, then the 70th week ends when those 3.5 days are completed. Daniel 9 indicates it is in the second half of the 70th week when the abomination of desolation occurs – the Beast entering the temple to be worshipped as the 2 witnesses lie dead for 3.5 literal days. And Daniel 9 indicates that soon after this there will be “pouring”, of the bowls of wrath, and Jesus Christ will soon return. So it seems unlikely that the 1290 days could be just starting in the middle of the 70th week, which only has 3.5 days to it, but rather the 1290 days must start prior.
As someone will be blessed to make it to the 1335th day, it makes sense that this day is placed after Jesus Christ has returned, and not while the reign of the Beast or wrath of God is still ongoing. The abomination of desolation, the Beast being worshipped in the temple, takes place after the middle of the 70th week, after the Beast has been in authority for 42 months already. Shortly after the Beast enters the temple, the abomination during the 3.5 days, then the 70th week is over. Thus the 1290 days MUST refer to the time period prior to when the Beast enters the temple to be worshipped, as there are only 3.5 days to the second half of the 70thweek of Daniel: and then the bowls of wrath are poured and Jesus returns. As such it makes sense that in Dan 12:11-12, the “daily sacrifice” marks the beginning of the 1290 days, and the “abomination set up” (Beast in the temple) marks the end of the 1290 days. This would mean that, after the Beast/abomination is worshipped in the temple, there is after that, at most, a 45 day window before Jesus will have returned, and people will be blessed to have made it to the 1335th day. As the Beast is in power for 1260 days prior to entering the temple as the abomination himself, this means that the 1290 days goes back to 30 days prior to when the Beast comes into authority. And so 30 days before the Beast enters into his 42 months of authority, the “daily sacrifices” stop.
It should also be noted that the sacrifices mentioned in Dan 9:27 which stop during the specified middle of the week must refer to “sacrifices and oblations” which are being offered by the two witnesses, which cease when they die in the middle of the week, and this is not the same as the “daily sacrifice” in Dan 12:11-12. The “daily sacrifice” in Daniel 12 must refer to a daily sacrifice (likely of the Jews) which stops 30 days before the Beast’s covenant is made with many. Then the Beast is in authority for 42 months, the first half of the 70th week. When the “sacrifices and oblations” of Dan 9 stop in the middle of the week, it must refer to the activities of the 2 witnesses, who the Beast kills precisely in the middle of the week.
As Revelation 12 describes the first half of the 70th week as 3.5 years, and the second half as 3.5 days, and the Beast and two witnesses being active at the same time, then the sacrifices and oblations which stop in the middle of the week must relate to the 2 witnesses, whose death marks the middle of the 70th week. The same sacrifices stopping cannot mark the beginning of the first half of the 70th week, and also the beginning of the middle of the 70th week. So two separate sacrifices must be being mentioned: Dan 12 mentions the end of the “daily sacrifice” 30 days prior to the rise of the Beast into power (his 42 months), and Dan 9 mentions the end of the “sacrifices and oblations” as the two witnesses are killed (end of their 1260 days and also ~the Beast’s 42 months), which marks the middle of the 70th week.
(This can be seen on the timeline here: http://stopalienabduction.com/RevelationTimelineMed.jpg)
This is entirely allowable if the stop of the “daily sacrifices” marks the beginning of the 1290 days, and the “abomination of desolation” marks the end of the 1290 days.
“And from the time [that] the daily [sacrifice] shall be taken away, and the abomination that maketh desolate set up, [there shall be] a thousand two hundred and ninety days.” Dan 12:11
Put in order of the Hebrew this reads more closely, “Now after the time sacrifice taken away daily, and give the abomination that makes desolation, days 1290”. I don’t see anything there that forbids the sacrifice being the starting point and the abomination being the ending point of the 1290 days (and compare 2 Chron 25:27 translation “from-time, after-time” וּמֵעֵת ). Also looking at the Greek, it reads in order, “and from the time the regular sacrifice is abolished, and the giving abomination making desolation, days 1290”. I don’t see anything in the Greek that forbids this interpretation either.
But it is the placement of the time of the abomination of desolation, the Beast entering the temple, which occurs only 3.5 days before the 70th week ends, which necessitates that the 1290 days must be coming to a close at this point, and not just beginning, necessitating the 1290 days must begin with the sacrifices stopping and end with the abomination of desolation.
Parallel in the Gospels and Daniel of the Abomination of Desolation
Especially pertaining to the 70 AD fulfillment of the abomination of desolation, and the future fulfillment of the same, next we are going to see how all this lines up with the prophecies of Jesus pertaining to the abomination of desolation in the Gospels.
In Matt 24, Mark 13, and in Luke 21, Jesus mentions the abomination of desolation.
Jesus first says in these 3 passages that not one stone would left upon another of the Temple. Then the disciples ask Jesus these particular questions:
“Teacher, when therefore will these things happen and what will be the sign when these things are about to take place?” (Luke 21)
“Tell us, when will these things be, and what will be the sign when all these things are going to be fulfilled?” (Mark 13)
“”Tell us, when will these things happen, and what will be the sign of Your coming, and of the end of the age?” (Matt 24)
In Matt 24 and Mark 13, Jesus specifically references to “the abomination of desolation spoken of by Daniel”. In Luke 21 Jesus does not mention Daniel, but says, “But when you see Jerusalem surrounded by armies, then know that nigh is its desolation.” This word “desolation” is “eremosis” (2050) which is used only 3x in the New Testament, and the other 2x are in Matt 24 and Mark 13 in the phrase “the abomination of desolation spoken of by Daniel”.
In each Gospel the disciples are recorded to have asked Jesus different questions. As such, in each Gospel the disciples receive slightly different answers, which match the particular questions they asked. To rephrase,
Luke 21: When will the temple be destroyed, and what will be the sign this is about to happen?
Mark 13: When will the temple be destroyed, and what will be the sign when ALL these things will be Finished?
Matt 24: When will the temple be destroyed, and what will be the sign of your coming, and of the end of the age?
The reason that the answers are different is because the only question in common between these passages is “when will the temple be destroyed?” But the differences in the rest of the questions cause the difference in Jesus’ answers to the questions.
The part of Daniel that was fulfilled in 70 AD was the Daniel 9 “abominations” and “desolations” in the first fulfillment. The Jews had already seen “the abomination of desolation” fulfilled once in the past, with Antiochus IV in 168 BC, so they understood the term. And they understood that Jesus was saying similar “abomination of desolation” events would happen again. Jesus was referring to Dan 11:31 in the context of referencing to the term “abomination of desolation” which the Jews understood from the time of the Maccabees. However, Jesus was not saying that Daniel 11 was going to be fulfilled again, as Dan 11 was already fulfilled once with Antiochus IV, and Octavius, etc. up through the death of Herod. Rather, Jesus was referring to the first fulfillment of Dan 9 “abominations”, and Himself prophesying to the people (as He was also a prophet) that “abominations” in Daniel 9 would again be an “abomination of desolation” event as had happened with Antiochus IV.
“Know therefore and understand, [that] from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince [shall be] seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times.
And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of the prince that shall come [Satan, “prince of this world”] shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof [shall be] with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined.
(And he [Jesus Messiah] shall confirm the covenant with many for one week [Passover week]: and in the midst of the week [Jesus crucified] he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease [no more other sacrifices needed, the veil was torn], and on thewings of abominations [eagle standard of Roman Legion] shall be one [Titus] who makes desolate, even until the consummation, which is determined, is poured [like water] out on the desolate.)” Dan 9
Jesus was prophesying that the Daniel 9 “abominations” and “desolations” would be fulfilled with another instance of the abomination of desolation as had been seen with Antiochus – but not just once, rather, twice. And Dan 9 was not fulfilled the first time standing alone, but it was also connected to Dan 12:1-7, which gave the timeframe of “times, time, and half a time”, corresponding with the period of Roman assault against the Jews and Jerusalem. And also tied with Michael standing up in the heavenly battle which is recorded in Revelation 12, that occurred after the ascension of Jesus Christ and before 70 AD. And so Jesus was prophesying on 2 future fulfillments of Daniel 9 and 12.
In Luke 21 Daniel is not mentioned, nor is the “abomination of desolation” referenced as specifically. The question the disciples asked was “when will these things happen [the temple be destroyed] and what will be the sign this is about to happen?”. These 2 questions combined ask for an answer predominately focused in the near future. These questions do not mention “all things being finished” nor “sign of your coming” nor “end of the age”. Jesus replies that when Jerusalem is surrounded by armies, nigh is its “desolation”, and it is time to flee. And this is matching with the Christian church fleeing Jerusalem to Pella around 66-67 AD, after seeing the Roman Legion of Cestius. Also Jesus mentions that “nigh is its desolation” hinting in reference to the eagle Aquila standard which was carried by the first Roman Legion of Cestius, and later the same thing was worshipped in the temple by the Roman Legion of Titus, and was the abomination of desolation.
Luke 21:8-24 refers to events that were fulfilled once in the past leading up to the destruction of the temple and Jerusalem in 70 AD. But Luke 21:25-28 refers to a time in the future in which the temple will be destroyed again. And also parts of Luke 21:8-24 will also repeat again in a second fulfillment in the future, but having less of an accurate tone than for their first fulfillment for the events leading up to 70 AD. (See details on past fulfillment emphasis here: http://www.catholicapologetics.info/apologetics/judaism/prophetic.htm)
In comparison, in Mark 13 the questions ask for a more extensive answer, asking more broadly for what the sign will be when “ALL these things will be Finished”. As such the answer is more balanced between the near 70AD fulfillment and the far future Revelation fulfillment: a mixture of both. Again, this is because the temple would both be destroyed in 70 AD, and will be destroyed again in the future.
In reference to Daniel, Jesus says, “But when ye shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing where it ought not, (let him that readeth understand,) then let them that be in Judaea flee to the mountains”.
Jesus uses a vague term “standing where it ought not”. This vague location could refer to either the Roman Legion of Cestius at Jerusalem, if coupled with the understanding in Luke that when Jerusalem was surrounded by armies, “nigh is its desolation”. OR this vague location could refer to the Beast in the temple in Revelation, if coupled with the understanding from 2 Thes 2 and Matt 24, of the abomination being in the temple or “holy place”.
Mark 13:6-18 is more predominantly focused on the first fulfillment of Daniel 9 and 12 with the events leading up to 70 AD. But Mark 13:13-18 equally seems to apply to both the past and future in focus. And Mark 13 from verse 19 on after, has a focus on the future fulfillment of Daniel 9 and 12, and the future destruction of the temple in the end times. Because Daniel 9 and 12 together told of the destruction of the temple twice in the future (at the time when Jesus was prophesying) Jesus answered with taking both fulfillments into account. In this He answered the broader question of “sign of all these things being finished” which was asked in Mark 13, but not in Luke 21. And so Jesus answered with the emphasis more balanced between the 70 AD and Revelation fulfillment, rather than the emphasis being more on the immediate 70 AD fulfillment as is in Luke 21.
In Matt 24, not 2 but 3 questions were asked, which truly required more focus on the far-future fulfillment in order to answer them, “”Tell us, when will these things happen [temple be destroyed], and what will be the sign of Your coming, and of the end of the age?”
As such Matthew 24 is focused much more on the end times second fulfillment of Daniel 9 and 12, and far less on the 70 AD fulfillment. Comparing Luke 21 as a heavy focus on the first fulfillment, with Matt 24 as a heavy focus on the second fulfillment, can show the differences more clearly. But summarily, Matt 24 is just as focused into the second future fulfillment, as Luke 21 was not but rather focused into the first 70 AD fulfillment.
Matt 24 also answers the unique question (not asked in Mark or Luke) of when the end of the age (of the Gentiles) will be, answered in Matt 24:14, then leading into events of the 70th week in Matt 24:15. Of the 3 passages Matt 24 most closely parallels the procession of events in the book of Revelation, placing much more importance on signs of the end of the age of the Gentiles, and the 70th week age of the Jews, and signs of Jesus’ return, and also on the events preceding the final destruction of the temple. Similar to 67 AD, Jesus indicates that there will be some chance to flee Jerusalem, but in this case it is once people see the abomination enter the temple, which precedes the destruction of Jerusalem. In this case, it is the Beast entering the temple during the second half of the 70th week, the 3.5 days while the 2 witnesses lie dead, which indicates it is the last-chance time to flee Jerusalem, before desolation comes.
“Know therefore and understand, [that] from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince [shall be] seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times. [from the command to rebuild to time of Jesus] And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: [Jesus Christ crucified, then skip thousands of years] and the people of the prince that shall come [the Beast and his armies] shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof [shall be] with a flood [Rev 14:20 winepress of wrath of God, blood to horses bridle 200 miles], and unto the end of the war desolations are determined. (And he [the Beast] shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the middle of the week [death of 2 witnesses] he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation [of the 2 witnesses] to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations [of the Beast in the temple], he shall make [it] desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured [in Revelation bowls of wrath of God poured out] upon the desolate.)” Dan 9
Again, Daniel 9 is connected to Daniel 12 in their second fulfillment.
The first thing that happens in Daniel 12 is that Michael stands up. Rev 12:7 is the only time Michael is mentioned by name in Revelation, but this event was already fulfilled in the first fulfillment, historically between 33-70AD in the heavenly angelic war. But this is not the only time in Revelation in which Michael will play an important role, even though he is not mentioned by name. Michael is the archangel, and the only angel who is ever called “the archangel” in the Bible. And we are told specifically that the archangel, Michael, will sound the last trumpet, if we cross-reference 1 Thessalonians with 1 Corinthians.
“For this we say to you by the word of the Lord, that we who are alive and remain until the coming of the Lord, will not precede those who have fallen asleep. For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel and with the trumpet of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first. Then we who are alive and remain will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air, and so we shall always be with the Lord.” 1 Thes 4:15-17
“Behold, I tell you a mystery; we will not all sleep, but we will all be changed, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet; for the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we will be changed.” 1 Cor 15:51-52
From these two verses it can be gathered that Michael the archangel will be the angel who blows the last trumpet, which seems specified to precede the dead rising (first) and then the living being caught up in the air and changed. The last trumpet is blown in Rev 11:15,
“And the seventh angel sounded; and there were great voices in heaven, saying, The kingdoms of this world are become [the kingdoms] of our Lord, and of his Christ; and he shall reign for ever and ever.” Rev 11:15
This seventh angel who blows the seventh trumpet is Michael the archangel, and this is the second fulfillment of Michael standing up for God’s people. This all also matches what Jesus said, “And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.” Matt 24:31
This is in a time of great trouble, as Revelation is full of great trouble, which parallels Dan 12, “And there shall be a time of trouble, Such as never was since there was a nation, Even to that time.” Dan 12:1
Following Michael sounding the 7th trumpet, Dan 12:1-2 also states: “And at that time your people shall be delivered, Every one who is found written in the book. And many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, Some to everlasting life”. This corresponds very well to 1 Thes 4 and 1 Cor 15, and Matt 24, which put together say the dead will be raised and the living caught up after the last trumpet sounds.
Skipping to after the millennial reign, then Dan 12 also details,
“2 And many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, Some to everlasting life, Some to shame and everlasting contempt. 3 Those who are wise shall shine Like the brightness of the firmament, And those who turn many to righteousness Like the stars forever and ever.” And this parallels with the Judgment and the Second Resurrection detailed in Rev 20.
Altogether, all of Dan 12 corresponds to the second fulfillment of Daniel 9. The rest of Dan 12 gives the “times, time, and half a time” and the 1290 and 1335 days periods, and specifies the prophecies are for the last days. While Daniel 12:7 also gave the 3.5 year timeframe for the attacks on the Jews and Jerusalem of the first fulfillment in 70 AD, it also applies to the 42 months of the Beast’s reign and the 3.5 days of the second half of the 70th week of Daniel 9. But the 1290 and 1335 days that are mentioned are solely applicable to the second fulfillment of Daniel 9, and the time of the 70th week in the time of the end.
“Although I heard, I did not understand. Then I said, “My lord, what shall be the end of these things?” 9 And he said, “Go your way, Daniel, for the words are closed up and sealed till the time of the end. 10 Many shall be purified, made white, and refined, but the wicked shall do wickedly; and none of the wicked shall understand, but the wise shall understand. 11 “And from the time that the daily sacrifice is taken away, and the abomination of desolation is set up, there shall be one thousand two hundred and ninety days. 12 Blessed is he who waits, and comes to the one thousand three hundred and thirty-five days. 13 “But you, go your way till the end; for you shall rest, and will arise to your inheritance at the end of the days.” Dan 12
And so in 3 of the Gospels, using the past fulfillment of Dan 11:31 of the abomination of desolation with Antiochus IV as a reference the people understood, Jesus prophesies of the first fulfillment of Daniel 9 and 12 in the time leading up to 70 AD, and also of the second fulfillment of Daniel 9 and 12 to occur in the end times and Revelation. Jesus focuses his prophesying on the first fulfillment of Daniel 9 and 12 the most in Luke 21, halfway in Mark 13, and the least in Matt 24. And Jesus focuses his prophesying on the second fulfillment of Daniel 9 and 12 the least in Luke 21, halfway in Mark 13, and the most in Matt 24.
This resolves the discrepancy of how it is that in the 70 AD fulfillment, Matt 24 does not, and Mark 13 only vaguely, line up with the events that took place, but the Luke 21 passage does match the events. The sign for people to flee Jerusalem in the 70 AD fulfillment was not them seeing the abomination in the temple as in Matt 24, because Matt 24 in this caution refers to the second fulfillment, in Revelation. But the Luke 21 warning of approaching armies did refer to the first fulfillment, and this warning is what the early Christians in Jerusalem did follow. Matt 24 is, and Mark 13 leans more, for the second fulfillment of Daniel 9 and 12, in which the abomination in the temple will be the sign to flee. But Luke 21 is more about the first fulfillment, in which armies was the sign to flee, and this also explains why Luke 21 only hints at the abomination, instead of referring to it more clearly, as the abomination came long after it would have done any good as a sign to flee in 70 AD.
I have placed these parallel passages in a chart, with the first fulfillment of Daniel 9 and 12 around the 70 AD time period in blue, the second fulfillment of Daniel 9 and 12 in the Revelation time period in red, and verses that seem to equally apply to both fulfillments in purple. Because the prophesies are to be fulfilled twice, with similar events involved leading up to both fulfillments of Daniel 9 and 12, the passages look practically identical. Really, the way to note the difference in tone is to understand that it is the QUESTIONS that were asked which define which fulfillment the passage has its emphasis on and the differences of the details in the passages, however slight. The QUESTIONS Jesus was answering define the time period the passage focuses on, not so much the details, because the details repeat both times.
Revelation Dan 9 and 12 Halfway Mixed Dan 9 and 12 70 AD Daniel 9 and 12
4And Jesus answered and said unto them, Take heed that no man deceive you. 5For many shall come in my name, saying, I am Christ; and shall deceive many. 6And ye shall hear of wars and rumours of wars: see that ye be not troubled: for all these things must come to pass, but the end is not yet. 7For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom: and there shall be famines, and pestilences, and earthquakes, in divers places. 8All these are the beginning of sorrows. 9Then shall they deliver you up to be afflicted, and shall kill you: and ye shall be hated of all nations for my name’s sake. 10And then shall many be offended, and shall betray one another, and shall hate one another. 11And many false prophets shall rise, and shall deceive many. 12And because iniquity shall abound, the love of many shall wax cold. 13But he that shall endure unto the end, the same shall be saved. 14And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations; and then shall the end come.
15When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place, (whoso readeth, let him understand:) 16Then let them which be in Judaea flee into the mountains: 17Let him which is on the housetop not come down to take any thing out of his house: 18Neither let him which is in the field return back to take his clothes. 19And woe unto them that are with child, and to them that give suck in those days! 20But pray ye that your flight be not in the winter, neither on the sabbath day: 21For then shall be great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be. 22And except those days should be shortened, there should no flesh be saved: but for the elect’s sake those days shall be shortened. 23Then if any man shall say unto you, Lo, here is Christ, or there; believe it not. 24For there shall arise false Christs, and false prophets, and shall shew great signs and wonders; insomuch that, if it were possible, they shall deceive the very elect. 25Behold, I have told you before. 26Wherefore if they shall say unto you, Behold, he is in the desert; go not forth: behold, he is in the secret chambers; believe it not. 27For as the lightning cometh out of the east, and shineth even unto the west; so shall also the coming of the Son of man be. 28For wheresoever the carcase is, there will the eagles be gathered together. 29Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken: 30And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. 31And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other. 32Now learn a parable of the fig tree; When his branch is yet tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye know that summer is nigh: 33So likewise ye, when ye shall see all these things, know that it is near, even at the doors. 34Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass, till all these things be fulfilled. 35Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away. 36But of that day and hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels of heaven, but my Father only.
5And Jesus answering them began to say, Take heed lest any man deceive you: 6For many shall come in my name, saying, I am Christ; and shall deceive many. 7And when ye shall hear of wars and rumours of wars, be ye not troubled: for such things must needs be; but the end shall not be yet. 8For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom: and there shall be earthquakes in divers places, and there shall be famines and troubles: these are the beginnings of sorrows. 9But take heed to yourselves: for they shall deliver you up to councils; and in the synagogues ye shall be beaten: and ye shall be brought before rulers and kings for my sake, for a testimony against them. 10And the gospel must first be published among all nations. 11But when they shall lead you, and deliver you up, take no thought beforehand what ye shall speak, neither do ye premeditate: but whatsoever shall be given you in that hour, that speak ye: for it is not ye that speak, but the Holy Ghost. 12Now the brother shall betray the brother to death, and the father the son; and children shall rise up against their parents, and shall cause them to be put to death.
13And ye shall be hated of all men for my name’s sake: but he that shall endure unto the end, the same shall be saved. 14But when ye shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing where it ought not, (let him that readeth understand,) then let them that be in Judaea flee to the mountains: 15And let him that is on the housetop not go down into the house, neither enter therein, to take any thing out of his house: 16And let him that is in the field not turn back again for to take up his garment. 17But woe to them that are with child, and to them that give suck in those days! 18And pray ye that your flight be not in the winter.
19For in those days shall be affliction, such as was not from the beginning of the creation which God created unto this time, neither shall be. 20And except that the Lord had shortened those days, no flesh should be saved: but for the elect’s sake, whom he hath chosen, he hath shortened the days. 21And then if any man shall say to you, Lo, here is Christ; or, lo, he is there; believe him not: 22For false Christs and false prophets shall rise, and shall shew signs and wonders, to seduce, if it were possible, even the elect. 23But take ye heed: behold, I have foretold you all things. 24But in those days, after that tribulation, the sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, 25And the stars of heaven shall fall, and the powers that are in heaven shall be shaken. 26And then shall they see the Son of man coming in the clouds with great power and glory. 27And then shall he send his angels, and shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from the uttermost part of the earth to the uttermost part of heaven. 28Now learn a parable of the fig tree; When her branch is yet tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye know that summer is near: 29So ye in like manner, when ye shall see these things come to pass, know that it is nigh, even at the doors. 30Verily I say unto you, that this generation shall not pass, till all these things be done. 31Heaven and earth shall pass away: but my words shall not pass away. 32But of that day and that hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels which are in heaven, neither the Son, but the Father. 33Take ye heed, watch and pray: for ye know not when the time is.
25And there shall be signs in the sun, and in the moon, and in the stars; and upon the earth distress of nations, with perplexity; the sea and the waves roaring; 26Men’s hearts failing them for fear, and for looking after those things which are coming on the earth: for the powers of heaven shall be shaken. 27And then shall they see the Son of man coming in a cloud with power and great glory. 28And when these things begin to come to pass, then look up, and lift up your heads; for your redemption draweth nigh. 29And he spake to them a parable; Behold the fig tree, and all the trees; 30When they now shoot forth, ye see and know of your own selves that summer is now nigh at hand. 31So likewise ye, when ye see these things come to pass, know ye that the kingdom of God is nigh at hand. 32Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass away, till all be fulfilled. 33Heaven and earth shall pass away: but my words shall not pass away. 34And take heed to yourselves, lest at any time your hearts be overcharged with surfeiting, and drunkenness, and cares of this life, and so that day come upon you unawares. 35For as a snare shall it come on all them that dwell on the face of the whole earth. 36Watch ye therefore, and pray always, that ye may be accounted worthy to escape all these things that shall come to pass, and to stand before the Son of man.